Übersetzung für 'past' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzungen für past im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: past, she was somebody with a past, to have a past, in the past, to live in the past. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "past" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Cohen, the policy became "the text, the whole text, and nothing but the text", except for any bawdy passages and the addition of copious explanatory footnotes.
In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in by Benjamin Jowett , who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language.
As a language evolves, texts in an earlier version of the language—original texts, or old translations—may become difficult for modern readers to understand.
Such a text may therefore be translated into more modern language, producing a "modern translation" e. Modern translation is applicable to any language with a long literary history.
For example, in Japanese the 11th-century Tale of Genji is generally read in modern translation see " Genji: Modern translation often involves literary scholarship and textual revision, as there is frequently not one single canonical text.
This is particularly noteworthy in the case of the Bible and Shakespeare, where modern scholarship can result in substantive textual changes.
Modern translation meets with opposition from some traditionalists. In English, some readers prefer the Authorized King James Version of the Bible to modern translations, and Shakespeare in the original of c.
An opposite process involves translating modern literature into classical languages, for the purpose of extensive reading for examples, see " List of Latin translations of modern literature ".
Douglas Hofstadter , in his book, Le Ton beau de Marot , argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc.
The Russian -born linguist and semiotician Roman Jakobson , however, had in his paper " On Linguistic Aspects of Translation ", declared that "poetry by definition [is] untranslatable".
In Hofstadter published his own translation of Eugene Onegin , in verse form. Gregory Hays, in the course of discussing Roman adapted translations of ancient Greek literature , makes approving reference to some views on the translating of poetry expressed by David Bellos , an accomplished French-to-English translator.
A translation is an assemblage of words, and as such it can contain as much or as little poetry as any other such assemblage.
Book-title translations can be either descriptive or symbolic. Such symbolic book titles usually indicate the theme, issues, or atmosphere of the work.
When translators are working with long book titles, the translated titles are often shorter and indicate the theme of the book. The translation of plays poses many problems such as the added element of actors, speech duration, translation literalness, and the relationship between the arts of drama and acting.
Successful play translators are able to create language that allows the actor and the playwright to work together effectively.
In translating Chinese literature, translators struggle to find true fidelity in translating into the target language. A notable piece of work translated into English is the Wen Xuan , an anthology representative of major works of Chinese literature.
Translating this work requires a high knowledge of the genres presented in the book, such as poetic forms, various prose types including memorials, letters, proclamations, praise poems, edicts, and historical, philosophical and political disquisitions, threnodies and laments for the dead, and examination essays.
Thus the literary translator must be familiar with the writings, lives, and thought of a large number of its authors, making the Wen Xuan one of the most difficult literary works to translate.
Translation of a text that is sung in vocal music for the purpose of singing in another language—sometimes called "singing translation"—is closely linked to translation of poetry because most vocal music , at least in the Western tradition, is set to verse , especially verse in regular patterns with rhyme.
Since the late 19th century, musical setting of prose and free verse has also been practiced in some art music , though popular music tends to remain conservative in its retention of stanzaic forms with or without refrains.
A rudimentary example of translating poetry for singing is church hymns , such as the German chorales translated into English by Catherine Winkworth.
Translation of sung texts is generally much more restrictive than translation of poetry, because in the former there is little or no freedom to choose between a versified translation and a translation that dispenses with verse structure.
One might modify or omit rhyme in a singing translation, but the assignment of syllables to specific notes in the original musical setting places great challenges on the translator.
There is the option in prose sung texts, less so in verse, of adding or deleting a syllable here and there by subdividing or combining notes, respectively, but even with prose the process is almost like strict verse translation because of the need to stick as closely as possible to the original prosody of the sung melodic line.
A sung translation may be considerably or completely different from the original, thus resulting in a contrafactum. Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them.
The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music.
In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know or do not know well , and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing.
An important role in history has been played by translation of religious texts. Such translations may be influenced by tension between the text and the religious values the translators wish to convey.
One of the first recorded instances of translation in the West was the rendering of the Old Testament into Greek in the 3rd century BCE. The translation is known as the " Septuagint ", a name that refers to the supposedly seventy translators seventy-two, in some versions who were commissioned to translate the Bible at Alexandria , Egypt.
According to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy versions proved identical.
The Septuagint became the source text for later translations into many languages, including Latin , Coptic , Armenian and Georgian. Still considered one of the greatest translators in history, for having rendered the Bible into Latin , is Jerome — C.
For centuries the Roman Catholic Church used his translation known as the Vulgate , though even this translation stirred controversy.
Higgins  in showed that among the earliest Christian authors, the understanding and even the text of this devotional verse underwent considerable changes.
These ancient writers suggest that, even if the Greek and Latin texts are left unmodified, something like "do not let us fall" could be an acceptable English rendering.
Higgins cited Tertullian , the earliest of the Latin Church Fathers c. A later author, Ambrose C. Efforts to translate the Bible into English had their martyrs.
Debate and religious schism over different translations of religious texts continue, as demonstrated by, for example, the King James Only movement.
During prayers, the Quran , as the miraculous and inimitable word of Allah, is recited only in Arabic. However, as of , it had been translated into at least languages.
A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings , depending on context.
This is said to be a linguistic feature, particularly of all Semitic languages , that adds to the usual similar difficulties encountered in translating between any two languages.
Muslims regard any translation of the Quran as but one possible interpretation of the Quranic Classical Arabic text, and not as a full equivalent of that divinely communicated original.
Hence such a translation is often called an "interpretation" rather than a translation. To complicate matters further, as with other languages, the meanings and usages of some expressions have changed over time , between the Classical Arabic of the Quran , and modern Arabic.
Thus a modern Arabic speaker may misinterpret the meaning of a word or passage in the Quran. Properly researching that context requires a detailed knowledge of hadith and sirah , which are themselves vast and complex texts.
Hence, analogously to the translating of Chinese literature , an attempt at an accurate translation of the Quran requires a knowledge not only of the Arabic language and of the target language , including their respective evolutions, but also a deep understanding of the two cultures involved.
Technical translation renders documents such as manuals, instruction sheets, internal memos, minutes, financial reports, and other documents for a limited audience who are directly affected by the document and whose useful life is often limited.
Thus, a user guide for a particular model of refrigerator is useful only for the owner of the refrigerator, and will remain useful only as long as that refrigerator model is in use.
Similarly, software documentation generally pertains to a particular software, whose applications are used only by a certain class of users.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about language translation. For other uses, see Translation disambiguation. For other uses, see Translator disambiguation.
For article translations in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia: Not to be confused with Transliteration. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
Dynamic and formal equivalence. Bible translations and Quran translations. So get to work translating. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination.
Hutchins, Early Years in Machine Translation: New Paradigms or Shifting Viewpoints? Antologia Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, — Cohen, "Translation", Encyclopedia Americana , , vol.
A Translation Manifesto , ; Boyd Tonkin , ed. Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 30 September Same questions — different continent" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Clinical Research Best Practices.
Archived from the original PDF on 5 May Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 18 May Cambridge University Press, p. The Secret Life of Dictionaries.
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. A Life , , p. The Life of C. Powell , University of California Press , , pp. Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American , vol.
To Plant a Tree: Merlin , edited by Michael Wiegers , Copper Canyon, pp. Archived from the original on An integration made in heaven! Retrieved July 28, An Interview with Meytal Radzinski".
Exclusion is a choice - Bias in "Best of" lists". You Suck at This ," Newsweek , May 18, , p. Translating Theatre Theory", Theatre Journal 59, no.
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Ask the LEO community. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: Zur mobilen Version wechseln. Das traue ich ihm schon zu.
Das traue ich ihm glatt zu. Aus dem Umfeld der Suche quondam , over , erstwhile , bygone. Die einfache Vergangenheit ode… 6 Replies avered past tense of aver - mit Nachdruck behaupten, beteuern Last post 15 Sep 15, Passen Sie auf sich auf!
Passen Sie gut auf! Watch what you say! Passen Sie auf , was Sie sagen! Sein Vorschlag passt mir gar nicht. The two colours BE clash violently.
The colors AE do not match. Die Farben passen nicht zusammen. The colours BE do not match. Forum discussions containing the search term Put that in your pipe and smoke it.
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If the cap fits, wear it. Passen Sie auf sich auf! Passen Sie gut auf! Watch what you say! Passen Sie auf , was Sie sagen!
Sein Vorschlag passt mir gar nicht. The two colours BE clash violently. The colors AE do not match. Die Farben passen nicht zusammen. The colours BE do not match.
Forum discussions containing the search term Put that in your pipe and smoke it. Last post 07 Oct 10, Last post 15 Jun 10, It seems to us that factors … 11 Replies Passt das so?
Last post 12 Jan 09, Every child plays sports, everywhere in the… 3 Replies Wundheilung - welches Verb passt? Last post 26 Jan 12, Last post 29 Mar 12, Traditions of translating material among the languages of ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Assyria Syriac language , Anatolia , and Israel Hebrew language go back several millennia.
There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh c. There is a separate tradition of translation in South , Southeast and East Asia primarily of texts from the Indian and Chinese civilizations , connected especially with the rendering of religious, particularly Buddhist , texts and with the governance of the Chinese empire.
Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation.
In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.
Notable is the Japanese kanbun , a system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government.
Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry [writes Link] must simply be set aside as untranslatable. The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension.
Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei with More Ways ], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle.
Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness Another imponderable is how to imitate the , rhythm in which five- syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read.
Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting.
Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry. Each syllable character belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring.
Once the untranslatables have been set aside, the problems for a translator, especially of Chinese poetry, are two: What does the translator think the poetic line says?
And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language? Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, "where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate.
At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem.
Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators that are associated primarily with absences of subject , number , and tense.
It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects ; the reader or listener infers a subject.
Some Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line.
Without a subject, he writes, "the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader. Nouns have no number in Chinese.
Chinese verbs are tense -less: For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity. Link proposes a kind of uncertainty principle that may be applicable not only to translation from the Chinese language, but to all translation:.
Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved.
Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
Translation of material into Arabic expanded after the creation of Arabic script in the 5th century, and gained great importance with the rise of Islam and Islamic empires.
Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic.
In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.
Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges.
Especially after the Renaissance , Europeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins.
Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions.
Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one.
In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge. Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them.
Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.
This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention.
The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax , and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions.
Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism , writes Christopher de Bellaigue , "with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness.
It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. Fidelity or "faithfulness" and felicity  or transparency , dual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds.
Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom.
John Dryden — wrote in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:. A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity faithfulness is said to be "faithful"; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, " idiomatic ".
Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive. The criteria for judging the fidelity of a translation vary according to the subject, type and use of the text, its literary qualities, its social or historical context, etc.
The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation.
Translators of literary , religious , or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text.
Also, a translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide "local color". While current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of "fidelity" and "transparency", this has not always been the case.
There have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation.
Adapted translation retains currency in some non-Western traditions. The Indian epic, the Ramayana , appears in many versions in the various Indian languages , and the stories are different in each.
Similar examples are to be found in medieval Christian literature, which adjusted the text to local customs and mores.
Many non-transparent-translation theories draw on concepts from German Romanticism , the most obvious influence being the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher.
In his seminal lecture "On the Different Methods of Translation" he distinguished between translation methods that move "the writer toward [the reader]", i.
In recent decades, prominent advocates of such "non-transparent" translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman , who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,  and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti , who has called on translators to apply "foreignizing" rather than domesticating translation strategies.
The question of fidelity vs. There is, however, no sharp boundary between formal and functional equivalence. On the contrary, they represent a spectrum of translation approaches.
Each is used at various times and in various contexts by the same translator, and at various points within the same text — sometimes simultaneously.
Competent translation entails the judicious blending of formal and functional equivalents. Common pitfalls in translation, especially when practiced by inexperienced translators, involve false equivalents such as " false friends "  and false cognates.
A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.
Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation.
But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable.
In the context of machine translation , a back-translation is also called a "round-trip translation. Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story , " The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County ".
When a document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text.
An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki — , who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in and — Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation, made by Edmund Chojecki in from a complete French copy that has since lost.
Many works by the influential Classical physician Galen survive only in medieval Arabic translation. Some survive only in Renaissance Latin translations from the Arabic, thus at a second remove from the original.
To better understand Galen, scholars have attempted back-translation of such works in order to reconstruct the original Greek. When historians suspect that a document is actually a translation from another language, back-translation into that hypothetical original language can provide supporting evidence by showing that such characteristics as idioms , puns , peculiar grammatical structures, etc.
For example, the known text of the Till Eulenspiegel folk tales is in High German but contains puns that work only when back-translated to Low German.
This seems clear evidence that these tales or at least large portions of them were originally written in Low German and translated into High German by an over- metaphrastic translator.
Supporters of Aramaic primacy —the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language —seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much more sense when back-translated to Aramaic: Due to similar indications, it is believed that the 2nd century Gnostic Gospel of Judas , which survives only in Coptic , was originally written in Greek.
Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.
As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions , subsequently adopted by other writers.
A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences , but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei , "comes close to being a lifetime job.
Viewed in this light, it is a serious misconception to assume that a person who has fair fluency in two languages will, by virtue of that fact alone, be consistently competent to translate between them.
Translation, like other human activities,  entails making choices, and choice implies interpretation. And there, my dear, I beg you to let yourself be guided more by your temperament than by a strict conscience The necessity of making choices , and therefore of interpretation, in translating [f] and in other fields of human endeavor stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe.
Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that "virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous , often in multiple ways.
Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice. Ambiguity is a concern to both translators and, as the writings of poet and literary critic William Empson have demonstrated, to literary critics.
Ambiguity may be desirable, indeed essential, in poetry and diplomacy ; it can be more problematic in ordinary prose.
A translator is faced with two contradictory tasks: A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing.
But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest.
Translating has served as a school of writing for many an author, much as the copying of masterworks of painting has schooled many a novice painter.
Translating like analytic philosophy compels precise analysis of language elements and of their usage. In the poet Ezra Pound , then at St.
Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia , and the early modern European translators of the Bible , in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated.
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