Übersetzung für 'gladiator' im kostenlosen Latein-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. gladiator - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'gladiator' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Verleiher Universal Pictures Germany. Vereinigtes Casino table games floridaVereinigte Staaten. Der Film ist schnell, kraftvoll und brutal. Haben die etwa alle denselben Film gesehen? Seine Familie könnte zum Ritterstand gehören. Maximus steigt zum Idol der Massen auf. Die vom Kaiser wahrscheinlich angestrebte Eroberung des Markomannenreiches im späteren Böhmen scheiterte aber nach einigen Anfangserfolgen, auch wenn mehrere Quellen behaupten, man habe kurz vor der Einrichtung von zwei neuen Provinzen qualification coupe du monde. Es ist schier unglaublich wie es dieser Film schafft den Zuschauer in das alte Rom zu entführen. Un gladiador es como un РёРіСЂР°С‚СЊ РІ Р±Р»СЌРєРґР¶РµРє Für einen Historienfilm typisch wurden dabei Änderungen und Verfälschungen der geschichtlichen Fakten zugunsten von Dramaturgie, Inszenierung und dem populären und idealisierten Bild der Leo. vorgenommen.
Before he became emperor, Septimius Severus may have attended the Antiochene Olympic Games, which had been revived by the emperor Commodus and included traditional Greek female athletics.
His attempt to give Rome a similarly dignified display of female athletics was met by the crowd with ribald chants and cat-calls.
Caligula , Titus , Hadrian , Lucius Verus , Caracalla , Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena, either in public or private, but risks to themselves were minimal.
Most of his performances as a gladiator were bloodless affairs, fought with wooden swords; he invariably won. On another occasion, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart, carried the bloodied head and his sword over to the Senatorial seats and gesticulated as though they were next.
Gladiator games were advertised well beforehand, on billboards that gave the reason for the game, its editor, venue, date and the number of paired gladiators ordinarii to be used.
Other highlighted features could include details of venationes , executions, music and any luxuries to be provided for the spectators, such as an awning against the sun, water sprinklers, food, drink, sweets and occasionally "door prizes".
For enthusiasts and gamblers, a more detailed program libellus was distributed on the day of the munus , showing the names, types and match records of gladiator pairs, and their order of appearance.
The night before the munus , the gladiators were given a banquet and opportunity to order their personal and private affairs; Futrell notes its similarity to a ritualistic or sacramental "last meal".
The event may also have been used to drum up more publicity for the imminent game. Official munera of the early Imperial era seem to have followed a standard form munus legitimum.
They were followed by a small band of trumpeters tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to "witness" the proceedings, followed by a scribe to record the outcome, and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors.
The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; the gladiators presumably came in last.
The entertainments often began with venationes beast hunts and bestiarii beast fighters. A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen flute-playing bear and Pullus cornicen horn-blowing chicken , perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani.
Lightly armed and armoured fighters, such as the retiarius , would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponents; most bouts would have lasted 10 to 15 minutes, or 20 minutes at most.
Spectators preferred to watch highly skilled, well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles; these were the most costly to train and to hire.
A general melee of several, lower-skilled gladiators was far less costly, but also less popular. Even among the ordinarii , match winners might have to fight a new, well-rested opponent, either a tertiarius "third choice gladiator" by prearrangement; or a "substitute" gladiator suppositicius who fought at the whim of the editor as an unadvertised, unexpected "extra".
Most were probably of poor quality,  but the emperor Caracalla chose to test a notably skilled and successful fighter named Bato against first one supposicitius , whom he beat, and then another, who killed him.
Combats between experienced, well trained gladiators demonstrated a considerable degree of stagecraft. Among the cognoscenti, bravado and skill in combat were esteemed over mere hacking and bloodshed; some gladiators made their careers and reputation from bloodless victories.
Suetonius describes an exceptional munus by Nero, in which no-one was killed, "not even noxii enemies of the state. Trained gladiators were expected to observe professional rules of combat.
Most matches employed a senior referee summa rudis and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs rudes to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match.
Referees were usually retired gladiators whose decisions, judgement and discretion were, for the most part, respected;  they could stop bouts entirely, or pause them to allow the combatants rest, refreshment and a rub-down.
Their instruments are a long straight trumpet tubicen , a large curved horn Cornu and a water organ hydraulis. A match was won by the gladiator who overcame his opponent, or killed him outright.
Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor. An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission emancipation , symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff rudis from the editor.
Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus , who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.
His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms. The contract between editor and his lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths;  this could be "some fifty times higher than the lease price" of the gladiator.
When Caligula and Claudius refused to spare defeated but popular fighters, their own popularity suffered. In general, gladiators who fought well were likely to survive.
Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores , yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.
Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder. A gladiator who was refused missio was despatched by his opponent.
To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out. For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable.
So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.
Some mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. The body of a gladiator who had died well was placed on a couch of Libitina and removed with dignity to the arena morgue, where the corpse was stripped of armour, and probably had its throat cut to prove that dead was dead.
The Christian author Tertullian , commenting on ludi meridiani in Roman Carthage during the peak era of the games, describes a more humiliating method of removal.
One arena official, dressed as the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater god of the underworld strikes the corpse with a mallet. Another, dressed as Mercury , tests for life-signs with a heated "wand"; once confirmed as dead, the body is dragged from the arena.
Whether these victims were gladiators or noxii is unknown. Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known.
The bodies of noxii , and possibly some damnati , were thrown into rivers or dumped unburied;  Denial of funeral rites and memorial condemned the shade manes of the deceased to restless wandering upon the earth as a dreadful larva or lemur.
The taint of infamia was perpetual. Gladiators could subscribe to a union collegia , which ensured their proper burial, and sometimes a pension or compensation for wives and children.
According to Cassius Dio, the emperor Caracalla gave the gladiator Bato a magnificent memorial and State funeral;  more typical are the simple gladiator tombs of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose brief inscriptions include the following:.
Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory".
Very little evidence survives of the religious beliefs of gladiators as a class, or their expectations of an afterlife.
Modern scholarship offers little support for the once-prevalent notion that gladiators, venatores and bestiarii were personally or professionally dedicated to the cult of the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis.
Rather, she seems to have represented a kind of "Imperial Fortuna " who dispensed Imperial retribution on the one hand, and Imperially subsidised gifts on the other — including the munera.
Having no personal responsibility for his own defeat and death, the losing gladiator remains the better man, worth avenging. Doom killed me, not the liar Pinnas.
No longer let him boast. I had a fellow gladiator, Polyneikes, who killed Pinnas and avenged me. Claudius Thallus set up this memorial from what I left behind as a legacy.
A gladiator might expect to fight in two or three munera annually, and an unknown number would have died in their first match. Few gladiators survived more than 10 contests, though one survived an extraordinary bouts;  and another died at 90 years of age, presumably long after retirement.
The earliest named gladiator school singular: He was lanista of the gladiators employed by the state circa BC to instruct the legions and simultaneously entertain the public.
Socially, they were infames , on a footing with pimps and butchers and despised as price gougers. The Spartacus revolt had originated in a gladiator school privately owned by Lentulus Batiatus , and had been suppressed only after a protracted series of costly, sometimes disastrous campaigns by regular Roman troops.
In the late Republican era, a fear of similar uprisings, the usefulness of gladiator schools in creating private armies, and the exploitation of munera for political gain led to increased restrictions on gladiator school ownership, siting and organisation.
Their contract auctoramentum stipulated how often they were to perform, their fighting style and earnings. A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novice novicius could negotiate with his lanista or editor for the partial or complete payment of his debt.
Faced with runaway re-enlistment fees for skilled auctorati , Marcus Aurelius set their upper limit at 12, sesterces. All prospective gladiators, whether volunteer or condemned, were bound to service by a sacred oath sacramentum.
Fighting styles were probably learned through constant rehearsal as choreographed "numbers". An elegant, economical style was preferred.
Training included preparation for a stoical, unflinching death. Successful training required intense commitment. Soldiers were routinely marked on the hand.
Gladiators were typically accommodated in cells, arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena. Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: Retiarii were kept away from damnati , and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies".
As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.
Its replacement could have housed about and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.
Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well fed and cared for.
Their daily, high-energy, vegetarian diet consisted of barley , boiled beans , oatmeal , ash and dried fruit. Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context of the gladiatoria munera  In Roman law, anyone condemned to the arena or the gladiator schools damnati ad ludum was a servus poenae slave of the penalty , and was considered to be under sentence of death unless manumitted.
Offenders seen as particularly obnoxious to the state noxii received the most humiliating punishments. These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect, and very rarely, survive to fight another day.
Some may even have become "proper" gladiators. Among the most admired and skilled auctorati were those who, having been granted manumission, volunteered to fight in the arena.
Their legal status — slave or free — is uncertain. Under Roman law, a freed gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life.
Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia. They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; and unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.
Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia ; some had their own slaves and gave them their freedom.
Thereafter, Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them. His motives are unknown, but his voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance combined the "womanly attire" of a lowly retiarius tunicatus , adorned with golden ribbons, with the apex headdress that marked him out as a priest of Mars.
As munera grew larger and more popular, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted as the Forum Boarium had been as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators; they were popular but not truly public events:.
A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage.
Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything.
But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.
So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime. In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.
Ticket scalpers Locarii sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".
It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 AD as the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.
Amphitheatres were usually oval in plan. For the crowd, amphitheatres afforded unique opportunities for free expression and free speech theatralis licentia.
Petitions could be submitted to the editor as magistrate in full view of the community. Factiones and claques could vent their spleen on each other, and occasionally on Emperors.
The amphitheatre munus thus served the Roman community as living theatre and a court in miniature, in which judgement could be served not only on those in the arena below, but on their judges.
Their seating was "disorderly and indiscriminate" until Augustus prescribed its arrangement in his Social Reforms. To persuade the Senate, he expressed his distress on behalf of a Senator who could not find seating at a crowded games in Puteoli:.
In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that even freedmen were sometimes appointed.
He separated the soldiery from the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak should sit in the middle of the house.
He would not allow women to view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows.
These arrangements do not seem to have been strongly enforced. Popular factions supported favourite gladiators and gladiator types. The secutor was equipped with a long, heavy "large" shield called a scutum ; Secutores , their supporters and any heavyweight secutor -based types such as the Murmillo were secutarii.
Titus and Trajan preferred the parmularii and Domitian the secutarii ; Marcus Aurelius took neither side.
Nero seems to have enjoyed the brawls between rowdy, enthusiastic and sometimes violent factions, but called in the troops if they went too far.
There were also local rivalries. Many were killed or wounded. Nero banned gladiator munera though not the games at Pompeii for ten years as punishment.
A man who knows how to conquer in war is a man who knows how to arrange a banquet and put on a show. Rome was essentially a landowning military aristocracy.
It applied from highest to lowest alike in the chain of command. In the aftermath of Cannae, Scipio Africanus crucified Roman deserters and had non-Roman deserters thrown to the beasts.
In obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them.
They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings.
When the gods were believed to be duly propitiated Armour, weapons, and other things of the kind were ordered to be in readiness, and the ancient spoils gathered from the enemy were taken down from the temples and colonnades.
The dearth of freemen necessitated a new kind of enlistment; 8, sturdy youths from amongst the slaves were armed at the public cost, after they had each been asked whether they were willing to serve or no.
These soldiers were preferred, as there would be an opportunity of ransoming them when taken prisoners at a lower price. While the Senate mustered their willing slaves, Hannibal offered his dishonoured Roman captives a chance for honourable death, in what Livy describes as something very like the Roman munus.
Two years later, following its defeat at Arausio:. Rutilius, consul with C. For he, following the example of no previous general, with teachers summoned from the gladiatorial training school of C.
The military were great aficionados of the games, and supervised the schools. Many schools and amphitheatres were sited at or near military barracks, and some provincial army units owned gladiator troupes.
It would rise to twenty, and later, to twenty five years. Roman military discipline was ferocious; severe enough to provoke mutiny, despite the consequences.
A career as a volunteer gladiator may have seemed an attractive option for some. They had served their late master with exemplary loyalty but thereafter, they disappear from the record.
Roman writing as a whole demonstrates a deep ambivalence towards the gladiatoria munera. Even the most complex and sophisticated munera of the Imperial era evoked the ancient, ancestral dii manes of the underworld and were framed by the protective, lawful rites of sacrificium.
Their popularity made their co-option by the state inevitable; Cicero acknowledged their sponsorship as a political imperative. And suppose a gladiator has been brought to the ground, when do you ever see one twist his neck away after he has been ordered to extend it for the death blow?
Thus demoralised was Capua. The munus itself could be interpreted as pious necessity, but its increasing luxury corroded Roman virtue, and created an un-Roman appetite for profligacy and self-indulgence.
Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting it face to face.
Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle in his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10, drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.
There remained the thrilling possibility of clandestine sexual transgression by high-caste spectators and their heroes of the arena. Such assignations were a source for gossip and satire but some became unforgivably public: What was the youthful charm that so fired Eppia?
Her poppet, her Sergius, was no chicken, with a dud arm that prompted hope of early retirement. Besides his face looked a proper mess, helmet-scarred, a great wart on his nose, an unpleasant discharge always trickling from one eye.
But he was a gladiator. That word makes the whole breed seem handsome, and made her prefer him to her children and country, her sister, her husband.
Steel is what they fall in love with. Most gladiators would have aimed lower. On the one and the same account they glorify them and they degrade and diminish them; yes, further, they openly condemn them to disgrace and civil degradation; they keep them religiously excluded from council chamber, rostrum, senate, knighthood, and every other kind of office and a good many distinctions.
The perversity of it! They love whom they lower; they despise whom they approve; the art they glorify, the artist they disgrace.
In this new Play, I attempted to follow the old custom of mine, of making a fresh trial; I brought it on again. In the first Act I pleased; when in the meantime a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited; the populace flock together, make a tumult, clamor aloud, and fight for their places: Images of gladiators could be found throughout the Republic and Empire, among all classes.
Mosaics dating from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD have been invaluable in the reconstruction of combat and its rules, gladiator types and the development of the munus.
Throughout the Roman world, ceramics, lamps, gems and jewellery, mosaics, reliefs, wall paintings and statuary offer evidence, sometimes the best evidence, of the clothing, props, equipment, names, events, prevalence and rules of gladiatorial combat.
Earlier periods provide only occasional, perhaps exceptional examples. Souvenir ceramics were produced depicting named gladiators in combat; similar images of higher quality, were available on more expensive articles in high quality ceramic, glass or silver.
Pliny the Elder gives vivid examples of the popularity of gladiator portraiture in Antium and an artistic treat laid on by an adoptive aristocrat for the solidly plebeian citizens of the Roman Aventine:.
When a freedman of Nero was giving a gladiatorial show at Antium , the public porticoes were covered with paintings, so we are told, containing life-like portraits of all the gladiators and assistants.
This portraiture of gladiators has been the highest interest in art for many centuries now, but it was Gaius Terentius who began the practice of having pictures made of gladiatorial shows and exhibited in public; in honour of his grandfather who had adopted him he provided thirty pairs of Gladiators in the Forum for three consecutive days, and exhibited a picture of the matches in the Grove of Diana.
The decline of the munus was a far from straightforward process. Still, emperors continued to subsidize the games as a matter of undiminished public interest.
Ten years later, he banned the gladiator munera:. In times in which peace and peace relating to domestic affairs prevail bloody demonstrations displease us.
Therefore, we order that there may be no more gladiator combats. Those who were condemned to become gladiators for their crimes are to work from now on in the mines.
Thus they pay for their crimes without having to pour their blood. An imperially sanctioned munus at some time in the s suggests that yet again, imperial legislation failed to entirely curb the games, not least when Constantine defied his own law.
In , Theodosius I r. In the Byzantine Empire, theatrical shows and chariot races continued to attract the crowds, and drew a generous Imperial subsidy.
It is not known how many gladiatoria munera were given throughout the Roman period. Many, if not most, involved venationes , and in the later Empire some may have been only that.
In the early Imperial era, munera in Pompeii and neighbouring towns were dispersed from March through November. Of days reserved for spectacles of various kinds, were for theatrical shows, 64 for chariot races and just 10 in December for gladiator games and venationes.
A century before this, the emperor Alexander Severus r. Some Roman reenactors attempt to recreate Roman gladiator troupes. Some of these groups are part of larger Roman reenactment groups, and others are wholly independent, though they might participate in larger demonstrations of Roman reenacting or historical reenacting in general.
These groups usually focus on portraying mock gladiatorial combat in as accurate a manner as possible. Gladiator fights have been depicted in a number of peplum films also known as "sword-and-sandal" movies.
This is a genre of largely Italian-made historical epics costume dramas that dominated the Italian film industry from to They can be immediately differentiated from the competing Hollywood product by their use of dubbing.
The pepla attempted to emulate the big-budget Hollywood historical epics of the time, such as Spartacus. Roman art depicts net-men just as often as other types.
The fact that his name is recorded indicates that the gladiator was famous. The mosaic dates to c. The retiarius is the most readily identifiable gladiator type, due to his signature equipment: An embellished gladiatorial dagger is held at the Naples National Archaeological Museum.
Such data indicate that the rete was circular, with a wide mesh about 3 metres 9. The retiarius complemented his net with an iron or bronze trident fuscina , fascina or, rarely, tridens  that stood about as high as a human being.
The wounds are 5 centimetres 2. This was previously thought to be an artistic invention or perhaps a ceremonial weapon but a recently excavated femur bone from a gladiator graveyard in Ephesus has wounds consistent with the use of such a weapon.
The retiarius wore minimal armour; unlike other gladiator types, he wore no helmet, greaves, or shield. He wore a manica on his left arm, where other gladiators wore it on the right;  this allowed him to more fluidly make a right-handed cast of his net.
The device protected the upper arm, head and face when the retiarius kept his left side to his opponent. They weigh about 1.
In the Eastern Roman Empire in later years, some retiarii wore a chainmail manica instead of the galerus. This mail covered the arm and upper chest.
Besides these items, the retiarius wore only a loincloth subligaculum held in place by a wide belt and gaiters or, as images show in lieu of the loincloth, a tunic that left the right shoulder uncovered.
The retiarius was traditionally pitted against a secutor or, possibly on rare occasions, a murmillo. They were also known as contraretiarii "those against the net-man".
In skilled hands, the net was a useful weapon. In the later image, however, Kalendio lies on the ground, wounded, and raises his dagger to surrender.
The inscription above Kalendio shows the sign for "null", implying that the match organisers ordered him killed. In such danger, the retiarius could sever the drawstring from his wrist with his dagger.
Extant imagery rarely shows gladiators of the type with a net, yet the class is named for the device, and Juvenal uses the net to quickly identify a retiarius in his satires.
The discrepancy may simply be a case of artistic licence ; other types of gladiator are often shown without their weapons but can be assumed to be holding them due to their stance, and a net is a particularly difficult weapon to depict.
The lack of nets in retiarius images may show gladiators who have already lost the weapon in the fight. Another possibility is that some retiarii simply did not use nets.
In most bouts, the retiarius probably had to resort to fighting with just his trident and dagger,  placing him at a disadvantage.
Wielded two-handed, the weapon could land powerful blows. This reduced his field of vision and gave the retiarius an advantage with his speed. Images from the Eastern Roman Empire show scissores wearing a tubular arm-guard in lieu of a shield.
The guard fits over the left hand and ends in a hooked, knife-like blade that was probably intended to parry the net and trident or to snag and pull away the net.
Scissores who succeeded in this probably dropped the hook weapon and fought with just a sword. The retiarius held the dagger in his left hand.
Pompeius, winner of nine crowns, born in Vienna, twenty-five years of age. His wife put this up with her own money for her wonderful spouse.
In some contests, a retiarius faced two secutores at the same time. He stood on a bridge or raised platform with stairs and had a pile of fist-sized stones to lob at his adversaries and keep them at bay.
The secutores tried to scale the structure and get at him. The platform called a pons , "bridge" may have been constructed over water.
Online version accessed 1 February From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wiedemann 26 gives an alternate translation for the latter graffito: The odds on the retiarius are customarily between five to three and two to one.
Auguet, Roland  Braund, Susanna Morton, ed. Connolly, Peter, and Hazel Dodge Life in Classical Athens and Rome. Performance and Identity in the Ancient World.
Follain, John 15 December How did the gladiators really live? Accessed 31 January Grant, Michael